Current smart-city initiatives are heavily reliant on market-led solutions. Frequently, these siloed initiatives do not achieve the desired outcome for governmental and non-governmental stakeholders. The silo approach to smart city initiatives has “failed to scale or demonstrate real benefits” (Barns et al. 2017) and does not pay sufficient attention to issues of flexibility and interoperability that are critical to delivering tangible benefits to residents, visitors and businesses (Johnston 2020). Therefore, in this project, we seek to develop frameworks and process models that can potentially guide the co-creation of smart city initiatives.
Developing frameworks for smart city solutions that prioritize safety and privacy